The most common mechanisms of HPV infection: how is the human papillomavirus transmitted?

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) - belongs to the group of anthroponotic pathogens (transmitted exclusively from person to person).

The path of infection is determined by several options for the development of events: by sexual contact, by blood, by domestic means (with a latent form of the disease - "wart").

how the human papillomavirus is transmitted

infection methods

As mentioned above, there are only three main ways of infection - through sexual contact, through blood, through domestic means.

By penetrating through the protective barrier of the skin, mucous membranes and circulatory system, HPV has an extremely negative impact on the patient's health.

Typically, a person experiences:

  1. Constant weakness.
  2. Sensation of nausea, heaviness in the hypochondrium.
  3. Pain syndrome.
  4. Problems with the urinary and reproductive system (difficulties in urinating, onset of acute paroxysmal pain in the perineum).
  5. Burning sensation in the groin.
  6. Dizziness against the background of a frequent increase in body temperature.
  7. A general decrease in the body's protective functions (frequent colds, a long recovery period after illness).
  8. Itchy skin, which is accompanied by the appearance of papilloma.

In order to recognize the presence of a viral infection and consult a doctor in time, it is necessary to take into account the prerequisites for the occurrence of this disease.

Prerequisites for Infection

The most common prerequisites for the occurrence of HPV include:

  1. Weakened immunity.
  2. The presence of other chronic diseases that impair the body's resistance to all kinds of external attacks.
  3. We are talking about hepatitis, human immunodeficiency (HIV), cardiovascular diseases, genetic abnormalities, rare hereditary forms of the disease.
  4. Promiscuous sexual relations.
  5. Unprotected sexual contact.
  6. Infection of a loved one in everyday life: when using dishes, bedding, towels, with a kiss, hugs.
  7. Use of public places for culture and leisure.
  8. Visit beauty salons.
  9. Sharing personal items: combs, manicure accessories.


Timely vaccination will protect against the most aggressive types of the virus.

transmission routes

The papilloma virus is transmitted by body contact, transplacentally (transplanted from infected surfaces), with the help of cerebrospinal fluid (blood, saliva, sweat).

Therefore, if there is a sick person in the family, then it is necessary to constantly treat all surfaces with a special antiseptic, follow strict rules regarding personal contacts and monitor the condition of the skin (even microcracks can become the initial area of damage) .

Can HPV be contracted through home contact?

Papillomavirus infection is perfectly transmitted through common objects as well as saliva. This should not be overlooked if there is a sick person in the house.

Distribution Mechanism:

  1. Kiss, hug. With saliva and sweat, PVI passes from one person to another. This is possible due to the fact that the virus moves freely along the mucous membranes, is present in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. When using personal hygiene items belonging to the patient.
  3. When shaking hands. Skin microtraumas can be excellent drivers of infection.
  4. When using shared utensils.
  5. When transferring things, objects from an infected person to a healthy person (this type of infection is very resistant to the influence of environmental factors).

Can HPV be sexually transmitted?

As the mucous membranes, the skin and its derivatives (secretions, blood vessels, saliva) are carriers of genetic material, it is possible to become infected with the human papillomavirus through sexual contact; as well as when using public baths, saunas.

Transmission mechanism:

  1. Directly during sexual contact (this is especially true for oral and anal sex).
  2. When using shared showers, baths, saunas. Without proper antiseptic and antibacterial treatment, these places are breeding grounds for all kinds of infections.
  3. When wearing a partner's underwear and clothing (especially for women who like to wear men's shirts, t-shirts, shorts, family shorts).

Is the virus transmitted from mother to child?

The transmission of the infection from mother to child is called the "vertical transplant route". This type of transmission of the papillomavirus is one of the most dangerous, as it harms the child's body and intellect.

After undergoing HPV, especially in the early stages (1 trimester), doctors insist on an abortion for medical reasons.


Auto-infection is only possible if untreated hygiene items are used. For example: razors, toothbrushes, nail scissors and similar items.

With this form of transmission of the papilloma virus, the patient does not feel discomfort for a long time and leads a normal life. And when the first symptoms of the disease appear (which are very similar to banal overwork), he ignores them without going to the doctor.

What types of HPV are the most dangerous?

The most dangerous types of human papillomavirus (HPV) include types 16 and 18. They have strains that cause malignant neoplasms - cancerous tumors that, as they grow, can metastasize.

The most common manifestation of exposure to a strain of the virus is the occurrence of diseases such as: cervical cancer, infertility, lung and bronchial changes, acute lack of immunoglobulins.

Observation! Cervical cancer can only occur because of the more aggressive form of the virus. Most papillomas are not dangerous.


To detect the presence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the body, several more complex hardware techniques help.

  • Colposcopy. A colposcope is a medical device that allows you to accurately determine changes in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system: to detect inflammation, damage and spread of viruses, fungal bacteria. Its use to determine the presence of HPV in the body is used to finally confirm the diagnosis. This device is able to: under 30x magnification, find the source of inflammation, determine its nature, scrape directly into the affected area.
  • PCR exam. This laboratory method is a differential diagnosis of this type of disease. PCR makes it difficult to determine the type of virus, but also the route of infection. For this analysis, it is necessary to sample biomaterials: blood, urine, sperm.
  • Digene Test. A modern diagnostic technique based on separating a small area of the affected skin for study. Using this approach, medical experts can tell 100% exactly what type of virus is present in the body, what is its concentration, is it in a reactive form, to which antiviral drugs there is a sensitivity.
  • Cytology. It is a study of the problem at the cellular level. For this, the top layer of the papilloma is removed, a separate section of the mucous membrane is taken. With the help of a sturdy microscope and a basic set of reagents, laboratory assistants study the behavior of the virus, its effect on the body (make a prediction), the degree of damage to the body's internal systems.
  • Histological diagnosis. The objective of this technique is to study the morphological changes in the tissues. The material for the study is obtained through a biopsy.


The treatment of Human Papilloma Virus involves strict observance of sexual abstinence, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulatory drugs, vitamin complex and drugs to reduce the effect of the virus in the body.

You should also limit healthy people's access to personal belongings, hygiene products, crockery and bedding. When malignant neoplasms caused by a virus arise, corrective treatment or surgical intervention with a long period of rehabilitation is carried out.

Ways to prevent illness

The main ways to prevent HPV are:

  • Compliance with the rules of sanitary and domestic provision of living space.
  • The use of contraceptives.
  • Control over the state of one's own health by specialized specialists.
  • The use of personal hygiene products strictly for the purpose for which they are intended, without passing them on to third parties.
  • They do not go to places of greater risk of infection: baths, saunas, swimming pools, water parks, massages and beauty salons.
  • Skin protection from interaction with a large number of external factors.
  • Protect your own health by isolating yourself from those who are sick with any infectious and viral diseases, skin diseases.

It is simply impossible to deal with a complex viral infection on your own. Medical control, the timely appeal for qualified help to a broad group of specialists will be the first and most serious step in dealing with the existing problem.

If such a problem occurs, one of the family members should immediately make a routine diagnosis and follow all the doctor's guidelines to prevent the spread of the virus. In addition, we must not forget about precautions that will help prevent contagion.