Human papilloma virus: typing and genotyping

how is the human papillomavirus

More than 120 types of HPV are known to medicine, which are classified according to various approaches. There is a summary table of the main types of viruses, compiled according to the results of large-scale screening studies:


one kind


Plantar warts

1, 2, 4

Common warts

2, 4, 26, 27, 29, 57

Flat warts

3, 10, 28, 49

Butcher's warts


Epidermodysplasia wart

5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19, 36

Skin lesions without warts

37, 38

Genital mucous membranes:

Genital warts

6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 54

Non-condylomatous lesions

6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70


16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 66, 68

Lesions of the mucous membranes, not of the genitals:

Laryngeal papilloma

6, 11, 30

Carcinoma of the neck, tongue

2, 6, 11, 16, 18, 30

All neoplasms are divided according to the oncological danger, location and shape of skin growths.

  1. Infection location: Alpha - affects the mucous membranes of Organs genitals in men and women, manifested by condyloma. Beta - affects the superficial layers of the epidermis, it manifests itself in the superficial layers of the epidermis with classic warts.
  2. The virus genotype determines its oncogenic potential, that is, the ability to cause oncological degeneration of infected tissues. Genotyping distinguishes these types of infection by the risk of oncogenicity: Low risk - 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 55. Intermediate - 30, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 58, 66. Tall rice - 16, 18, 45, 56.
  3. Forms of cutaneous neoplasms. Papillomas are divided into five main categories. The simple ones are the most common type of growth. As it develops, a warm-colored keratinized tuber is formed. Warts are located on the skin, either alone or in groups. Most often they occur on the inner and outer sides of the hand, the lower part of the face (lips, chin). There are also plantar growths. Smooth - it has a dark color and appears as small lumps on the skin. As a rule, they appear in the upper part of the body, less frequently in Organs genitals. Often they are felt in adolescence with a failure of the immune system, appearing in the neck and arms. Pointed - condylomata affect mucous membranes and are included in the oncogenic risk category. Filiform - acrochord or senile papillomas occur in middle-aged and elderly people. Internal springs - located in Organs internal organs. This category includes condyloma on the walls of the stomach and rectum, growths in the mouth and bladder.

The method of diagnosis, treatment and prevention depends on the type of cancer detected.

High-risk human papilloma virus

HPV is one of the most common viruses. Most of the time, the infection occurs through sexual and domestic contact. For many years, the virus can remain dormant and not manifest itself. It can be activated by several factors, for example, a weakened immune system or chronic diseases.

High-risk human papillomaviruses are especially dangerous. This category includes:

  • Average oncogenicity - 30, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 58, 66
  • High carcinogenicity - 16, 18, 45, 56, 59, 68.

Oncogenic human papilloma virus

Carcinogenic HPV is a serious danger, that is, viruses that can cause malignant degeneration of healthy cells. The risk group includes the following genotypes: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 68, 56, 58, 39, 70. They significantly increase the likelihood of developing cancer in the genitals, uterus, anus and urethra.

Oncogenic viruses are manifested by genital warts. Its appearance is a signal for seeking medical help and removing neoplasms.

Human papillomavirus 1

This infectious agent gives rise to the development of common and heel warts. Often, with this papillomavirus, deep lesions appear on the feet, causing discomfort and pain to the user. Bumps can form on the back of the hands and on the chin. In some cases, they appear on the eyelids, scalp, fingers and toes.

This type of virus has low oncogenicity. At the same time, it is impossible to remove it completely from the body. Modern drugs are capable of temporarily suspending their activity. The treatment aims to eliminate aesthetic problems, that is, to remove growths. In the future, therapy is performed to increase the defenses of the immune system. It is mandatory to prescribe drugs that inhibit papillomatosis.

Human papillomavirus 4

Another common form of viral disease. Manifested by the heel and common warts. As growths develop, they darken and take on a rough surface. In some cases, smaller formations form around a large mole.

Patients complain of itching, burning and pain in the affected area. HPV 4 also promotes the development of calluses and calluses on the soles of the feet.

This genotype is not at risk of malignant transformation. For treatment, surgical removal of the growths is used with additional patient immunotherapy.

Human papilloma virus 5

Responsible for the development of different types of growth. Most of the time, papillomavirus 5 leads to the appearance of warts or verruciform epidermodysplasia. The disease is rare and manifests itself as a large accumulation of warts. The pathological condition develops in youth and continues throughout life. According to statistics, women are more likely to get sick than men.

Verruciform epidermodysplasia (EVL) is essentially a unique predisposition of the epidermis to papillomavirus infection. In this case, HPV 5 has high carcinogenicity, that is, the risk of skin degeneration turns into squamous cell carcinoma.

Typical symptoms of epidermodysplasia:

  • Small warty growths that merge into large lesions as they grow.
  • Skin rashes appear on the face, back, neck, abdomen and even on the buttocks.
  • When the skin is damaged, linear structures with warts appear at the wound site.
  • In the body and in the limbs, the growths are bigger and denser than in the face and neck.

Human papilloma virus 6

The sixth type of HPV is diagnosed in middle-aged and older people. Neoplasms are pink or skin-colored and resemble the shape of a cauliflower. This type of papillomavirus is included in the group of infections with low oncogenicity and increases the risk of these pathologies:

  • Genital warts (condyloma).
  • Laryngeal papillomatosis.
  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Conjunctival papillomas.

Treatment consists of antiviral and restorative therapy, surgical removal of the neoplasm. Special attention is given to preventive measures: personal hygiene, balanced nutrition, increased immunity.

Human papillomavirus 7

As a result of HPV 7 infection, so-called butcher's warts or butcher's warts appear on the skin. They represent painless, light brown growths, which are most often located on the elbows and shoulders.

Butcher's warts occur in people who have frequent contact with raw meat. The infection penetrates the skin through small lesions. The growths appear on the elbows and hands in prominent and painless formations.

Human papillomavirus 11

Papillomavirus type 11 is most often diagnosed in women and manifests as genital warts. The pathological process involves the skin and mucous membranes. This HPV has low carcinogenicity, that is, it is not susceptible to malignant transformation.

Men and women who are sexually active and frequently change sexual partners are at risk of contracting this disease. The infection can occur with other genital infections. When infected with genome 11, the pathogen is incorporated into the set of human chromosomes, infecting the carrier's daughter cells.

The main symptoms of the disease are:

  • Single or multiple rashes.
  • Growths in women appear on the lips, cervix, clitoris, urethra.
  • In men, neoplasms appear on the head and body of the penis, scrotum, frenulum.
  • In both sexes, papillomas have adjacent locations: anus, perineum, oropharynx, bladder, perianal region.

The diagnosis is made according to the type of leak structure and it is not difficult. It is impossible to completely destroy the virus, but there are several therapeutic methods that can suppress its activity. For this, special medicines are used. Freezing methods, laser therapy and other surgical techniques are used to remove skin changes.

Prevention of HPV 11 infection is based on adherence to barrier contraceptive methods to prevent infection during sexual intercourse. It is also recommended to strengthen the immune system to increase its protective properties.

Human papilloma virus 12

Under the action of certain factors, HPV 12 can manifest itself as verruciform epidermodysplasia or wart. This pathological condition is also called Lewandowski-Lutz disease. It refers to a genetic disease.

Papillomavirus 12 requires a comprehensive diagnosis. This is due to the fact that the disease it causes can lead to serious dermatological defects and serious complications. In ¼ of the patients, the transformation of the affected tissues into squamous cell carcinoma is observed.

Human papilloma virus 16

One of the most common papillomaviruses, diagnosed in 60% of people, is HPV 16 (human papillomavirus). This type of infection is oncogenic and leads to the following pathologies:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Carcinoma of Organs genitals.
  • Carcinoma of the neck, tongue.

After infection, the virus is incorporated into the DNA regions of healthy cells, thereby disrupting the body's natural anti-tumor immunity. According to statistics, in 42% of cases, the 16th genotype is the main cause of cervical cancer.

Human papilloma virus 18

One of the most common urogenital viral infections is papillomatosis. Type 18 of this infection is associated with diseases such as HPV 16: cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer. It has high oncogenicity. Incorporation into the human genome causes the growth of benign tumors, which gradually degenerate into cancer. In 70% of cases, HPV 18 is detected in women with uterine cancer.

Treatment is prescribed only after a comprehensive diagnosis and establishment of the probability of malignancy of the neoplasms. Therapy consists of surgical removal of growths, 2-3 courses of antiviral and immunostimulating drugs. At the same time, one must take into account the fact that today there are no drugs that completely neutralize the 18th genotype of the papillomavirus.

Human papilloma virus 21

Another type of infection that causes verruciform epidermodysplasia is HPV 21. At the same time, it belongs to viruses with low carcinogenicity. Most of the time, it manifests as anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomatosis.

As the infection does not penetrate the bloodstream, but only affects the skin, then, for the diagnosis, scrapes of the epidermis and smears of the mucous membranes are used. Complex treatment that aims to eliminate skin defects and strengthen the immune system.

Human papilloma virus 31

So far, more than a hundred papillomaviruses are known, among which are oncogenic, that is, those that can cause malignant processes in the body. HPV 31 refers to an infection of moderate carcinogenicity that, under the influence of some factors, leads to cancerous lesions.

31 genotypes are associated with the following diseases:

  • Neoplasia of 2 and 3 degrees of severity.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Penile cancer.
  • Anal cancer.
  • Cancer of the oral cavity and larynx.
  • Bowen's disease.
  • Erythroplasia, Keira.
  • Dental complications.

The infection occurs more frequently during unprotected sex and poses the same danger to women and men. Infection is possible when the virus comes into contact with an open wound or during the delivery process, that is, transmission from the mother to the child.

Human papilloma virus 33

HPV of this type is most often diagnosed in women, because it contributes to the development of such diseases:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Genital carcinoma.
  • Cervical dysplasia.
  • Cervical cancer.

The pathological condition is considered anthropic, the infection occurs only among people. 2-4 months after HPV 33 enters the body, genital warts begin to form on Organs genitals with concomitant painful symptoms.

Human papilloma virus 35

Infection with this HPV is dangerous because of the development of malignant processes in the body. Type 35 is diagnosed in both men and women, but only in the latter causes serious problems.

The infection is manifested by condylomatous lesions of the perineum, external genitalia, anus and oral cavity (root of the tongue, internal part of the cheek). The infection can cause the development of dysplasia and cancerous processes in the cervix.

It is not so easy to cure HPV 35, so special attention is given to preventive measures: protected sex, healthy lifestyle, strengthening the immune system and much more. In case of infection, treatment consists of a set of techniques that aim to eliminate skin defects and suppress papillomatosis activity.

Human papilloma virus 39

This genotype represents a serious danger and threat to life, as it contributes to the degeneration of healthy tissues into malignant ones. Women are more sensitive to HPV 39 as it causes damage to the internal genitals. The infection can cause dysplasia and cervical cancer.

The infection may not manifest itself in any way for a long period of time, feeding on healthy tissues and increasing in size.

  • External symptoms of infection are skin growths on the inner walls of the vagina, mucous membranes of the cervical canal, in the cervical region.
  • Less commonly, condylomata form in the external genitalia, as well as around the exit of the urethra or close to the anus.
  • Neoplasms appear as single and multiple growths that externally resemble cauliflower.

Human papillomavirus 44

From the point of view of oncology, HPV type 44 is not dangerous. In this case, infection with this infection is manifested by genital warts and genital warts on the cervix and other important organs.

The treatment of skin growths is carried out in order to eliminate aesthetic discomfort, that is, the removal of neoplasms. In addition, all patients receive treatment with antiviral drugs and immunostimulants to suppress papillomatous infection in the body.

Human papilloma virus 45

Another representative of the group of oncogenic papillomaviruses with a high risk of degeneration is type 45. The infection is characterized by the following manifestations:

  • Genital warts.
  • Bowenoid papulosis.
  • Genital warts.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

The infection occurs during unprotected sex. A man carries the virus, although he may not know it. In women, the infection manifests itself as warty growths on the genitals. The pathology is very dangerous for the female body and requires serious treatment. It can take more than 20 years from the time of infection to the development of a malignant tumor caused by HPV 45.

In the process of diagnosis, PCR, oxygen test, calcoscopy, biopsy and cytological studies are performed to identify the pathogenic genotype. Treatment depends on the stage at which the disease is.

Human papillomavirus 51

This type of HPV belongs to anogenital infections of medium oncogenic risk. The infection is mainly caused by sexual contact and can lead to the following problems:

  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Oncological lesions of the anus, vulva or vagina in women.
  • Malignant neoplasms in the anus and penis in men.
  • Genital warts.
  • Giant Condyloma Buschke-Levenshtein.

To diagnose HPV, 51 patients need to have a urogenital smear. With your help, clinical confirmation of the presence of infection in the body, genotyping and assessment of the risk of malignancy is carried out.

There are no drugs specially formulated to treat this type of infection. The therapy aims to prevent malignant transformations and mobilize the body's anti-tumor immunity.

Human papillomavirus 52

According to medical statistics, HPV 52 is identified in 70% of cases in women over 35 years old. The infection occurs most often during unprotected sex. The painful condition is associated with the following pathologies:

  • Genital warts and genital warts.
  • Colon cancer in men.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

It is impossible to completely cure the virus, but with early diagnosis and adequate therapy, cells can be protected from destruction and malignancy. For this, surgical removal of growths, a course of antiviral therapy and the taking of medications to strengthen the immune system are performed.

Human papillomavirus 53

Infection with HPV 53 is possible through contact with mucous membranes or skin cells of an infected person. This genotype has low carcinogenicity and, therefore, does not present a risk of malignant transformation.

After infection, the virus can remain inactive for a long period of time. The action of several factors, for example, a weakening of the protective properties of the immune system leads to its activation. Because of this, the cells of the epidermis begin to actively divide, forming verrucous neoplasms and genital warts.

Treatment of papillomavirus type 53 is reduced to remove skin growth, take antiviral drugs and strengthen immunity.

Human papilloma virus 56

One of the types of human papillomavirus infection is HPV 56. This type is characterized by high oncogenicity and is associated with the following pathologies:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Carcinoma of the mucous membranes of Organs genitals.

The virus is dangerous for women and men, causing genital warts and other cancers. Infection penetrates the body through mucous membranes during unprotected sex or with open wounds on the epidermis.

HPV 56 requires complex treatment. Therapy consists of taking antiviral drugs, removing tumors surgically and strengthening the immune system. Particular attention is paid to preventive measures to protect the body from infections.

Human papilloma virus 58

The viral pathogen of the medium risk category of malignant transformation is type 58. The infection is inserted in the alpha group, that is, it contributes to the appearance of such pathologies:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Condylomata on the inner surface of the anus.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

After being introduced into the body, it causes the appearance of small protuberances with a dense and soft structure. Depending on the location, they can be light pink or brown. This genotype manifests very frequently in the neck, armpits, intestines, external and internal genitals and the bladder.

The danger of infection is due to the latent course of the infectious process. Since the pathogen can be dormant for a long period of time. Timely diagnosis and an integrated approach to treatment can prevent complications of human papillomavirus type 58.

Human papilloma virus 59

The HPV 59 genotype refers to oncogenic viruses. Under the action of some factors, it can cause damage to the tissues of the cervix and uterine epithelium, causing a precancerous condition. Infection with this pathogen occurs with unprotected anal or vaginal contact, less often with oral sex.

Often, the infection does not manifest itself for a long time. But the appearance of growths and warts on the skin indicates its activation. Genital warts are formed on the external genital organs and their mucous membranes.

To diagnose a painful condition, an analysis of viral DNA and PCR is performed. Treatment consists of taking antiviral drugs to suppress the infection.

Human papilloma virus 66

Often, the appearance of warts and papillomas in the body is associated with infection by type 66 papillomavirus. In this case, skin growths have the most inappropriate location: armpits, perianal and periorbital, perineum, and genital mucous membranes.

Usually, after infection, the infection remains latent for a long period of time. But under the action of certain factors, it is activated. These factors include:

  • Weakening of the immune system's defenses.
  • Imbalanced diet.
  • Bad habits.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners and unprotected sex.
  • Failure to comply with personal hygiene rules.
  • Frequent miscarriages and more.

The treatment of HPV 66 aims to remove skin growth and eliminate the factors that cause the spread of the infection. Antiviral therapy and vitamins are taken to boost immunity. Preventive measures include vaccination, timely treatment of any disease and a healthy lifestyle.

Human papilloma virus 67

According to the studies carried out, HPV type 67 belongs to viruses with an average state of oncological degeneration. That is, infection with this genotype, under certain conditions, can cause precancerous conditions.

The infection penetrates mucous membranes and damaged skin. The infection is manifested by papillomatous growths in the body. Growths may also form on the mucous membrane of the cervix.

Human papilloma virus 68

68 The HPV genotype has low oncogenicity and is manifested by skin growths from various locations. The strong spread of defects and their frequent traumas are dangerous. At this stage, viral DNA replaces healthy cells, changing their structure. If the problem is left without medical attention, the active progression of papillomavirus type 68 can lead to carcinoma.